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MOAC REPORT 2003: Table of Contents
  Introduction, Robin Chandler
  Project Manager's Report, Richard Rinehart
  Standards and Best Practices, Guenter Waibel
  Partner Reports
    Bancroft Library, James Eason
    Grunwald Center for Graphic Arts, Layna White
    Hearst Museum of Anthropology, Josh Meehan
    UCR/California Museum of Photography, Steve Thomas

   MOAC
Museums and the Online Archive of California (MOAC)


UCR/California Museum of Photography
University of California, Riverside
Steven Thomas

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

UCR/California Museum of Photography is creating broad access to its Keystone-Mast Collection, the world's largest amalgam of stereographic photography. Keystone-Mast encompasses an encyclopedic view of global cultural history with images taken from the late 19th through mid 20th centuries. Unprecedented access is being created through the partnership with Museums and the Online Archive of California (MOAC). MOAC builds on the collection tactics by opening expansive access for the Internet audience.

As required by MOAC guidelines, UCR/CMP staff has archived high-resolution master TIF files, sibling JPEG files and the standardized metadata for each item in the Keystone-Mast Collection Guide. As of January 2003, UCR/CMP will have 38,852 completed records available for network accessibility. This process has yielded duo venues of online service. The California Digital Library will be serving XML EAD DTDs and UCR/CMP will be serving less formal, more curatorial HTML digital catalog.

UCR/CMP's Keystone-Mast metadata is entered into a FileMaker Pro database. Using a MySQL editing data set, automated scripts are applied to transmit resolved data into a MOAC-ready encoded archival document (EAD). The resulting EAD DTD is ordained for delivery to the California Digital Library's Online Archive of California (OAC). The attached paper entitled, MOAC, UCR/CMP, & Online Collections Management Systems by James Mac Devitt, Digital Media Associate, describes UCR/CMP's methods of automation and provides motives for its use. (See pages 7 through 12).

XML Collection Guide

The MOAC EAD DTD includes detailed administrative and collection information. Item-level descriptions are fixed within the <co> container lists. The image sets consist of a thumbnail showing a JPEG-detail (a half-stereoview), linked to a reference JPEG-image. The larger reference image displays the entire stereoview. Access to the MOAC collection guide is gained through <http://www.moac.cdlib.org>. Keystone-Mast Collection Guide 2003 encompasses thirty percent of the total physical collection of Keystone stereographs.

In due time, UCR/CMP will re-upload the Keystone-Mast Collection Guide into the OAC with a further resolved four-image representation (described in the next section). To accomplish this, each item would be treated as a complex (MOA2) object. All of the raw material is available. The programming will be created after funding is in place.

HTML Collection Guide

UCR/CMP's Keystone-Mast Online Guide (the home site) will provide detailed descriptions and include four types of digital images for each stereograph:

the thumbnail (detail, a one-sided stereo),

the reference image (the full stereo pair),

a large detail (enlarged one-side of the stereograph),

and finally, the backside of each stereograph. This is captured and presented as a JPEG image. The backside is generally inscribed with hand written annotations, citations and the company's numbering codes).

The home site has features and flexibility not standardized in the realm of the OAC consortium. UCR/CMP's home site provides customized search/browse functions, researcher photo albums (similar to online shopping carts), e-cards (dynamic downloads for email delivery), and other site-specific countenance.

UCR/CMP home site is browsed through <http://photo.ucr.edu/kmast/>.

The STEREOGRAPHS

Stereographs are juxtapositions of two slightly different gelatin silver photoprint views. Keystone View stereo images are created with a two-lens camera. The lenses are offset approximately 2.5 inches.  The spacing is comparable to the gap between human eyes. When simultaneous photographs are taken through the dual-lens stereo camera, left- and right-eyed paired-views are exposed on film. This produces a stereoscopic image. Stereographs are loaded into a stereoscope (a 3D viewing device). With the stereoscope, users can see both sides of the pair independently-left eye to left side and right eye to right side. The brain interprets the binocular view, transforming it into a single 3D perception.

It is possible to free-view stereographs (viewing without a stereoscope), but it takes a bit of eye aerobics. To free-view, one must concentrate on the pair while forcing the eyes to diverge. Divergence is the opposite of crossing. For example, focusing on a distant vista will trigger involuntary eye-divergence. The opposite is also true. Looking at very close objects will cause the eyes to become crossed. Crossed-eye viewing of a stereograph yields hyper stereo. This crossed-eye mode produces what seems like a 3D view, but the foreground and background are inverted. Therefore crossing is less effective than diverging.

Stereography in the United States

Stereo publishers experienced their golden years in the early decades of the 20th century. Stereoview cards earned a substantial foothold in U.S. households and gained extensive curricular use in America's K-12 schools. Aggressive sales tactics employed by stereo publishers energized the lucrative market for armchair travelers. Communities were regularly visited by door-to-door stereo salespersons. Stereographs became an American standard for learning about places, people, and events. Neighbors would share sets of stereo cards while sitting next to their fireside. The cards were enjoyed as entertainment and substituted for world travel. School children would gather with large sets of stereo views, using them to fulfill classroom assignments. Broadly interpreted, yesteryear's encounter with tours of the world may be compared to the experience of web-surfing habits of today.

Traditional stereo viewing required touch. Cards were handed from one person to the next. Discovering great 3D scenes frequently generated exclamations such as "ooh" or "ah." Similar expressions of amazement continue today. Onsite researchers of Keystone-Mast Collection are astonished at stereography's overstated level of acuteness. Most stereoviews display layers of well-defined content. This exaggerated 3D-space visually separates the foreground from middle  and background. Frequently, subjects within 3D media stand out from their surroundings because layers of space are seen on separate planes. When a long-sought subject of disclosure jumps out of the 3D plane, a first impulse is to share the discovery with those nearby. Today's researchers continue to uphold the "ooh" and "ah" tradition.

The multi-dimensional touch of Keystone-Mast imagery has been under wraps for decades. Access remained a manual process of traveling to Riverside, California and physically examining the original file prints. Internet access has changed the way in which Keystone-Mast is tapped. The new standard is independence from traveling and appointments. The twilight of MOAC is the dawn of Keystone-Mast wired.

THE 19th CENTURY EXPERIENCE CREATED FOR THE 21st CENTURY BROWSER

The Keystone-Mast Collection has been in demand since it was acquired in the late 1970s. Researchers from diverse fields of study are drawn to the Keystone-Mast. Their common call is to harvest imagery for references in everything from book reports to dissertations and from textbooks to 3D IMAX movies. With amazing breadth, Keystone-Mast chronicles three-dimensional moments that focus on worldwide historic events, cultural uniqueness, social struggle, the arts, human achievement, the products of industry and other global reflections. Our challenge early on was to exhibit Keystone-Mast stereoviews for an international community. Internet services emerged as the best vehicle for delivering Keystone's immense treasures.

Kick-starting our web activity in 1994, the museum received an Apple Library of Tomorrow award. This was a significant gift of Apple computers and software. Forging ahead, UCR/CMP tapped into a T1 line at the UCR campus and started presenting online exhibitions. These included views from the collections. Right away, the museum was serving an international community. For example, The museum posted a dozen Keystone-Mast 19th century views of temples, forts and cityscapes less than twelve hours after a cataclysmic earthquake struck Kobe, Japan in 1995. Within days, the majority of the museum's online audience shifted from Canada and US to online users in Japan. The popularity of UCR/CMP's web site continues to grow by leaps and bounds. Much of this attention may be attributed to our ability to keep in pace with world events. Today, the web site receives daily visits by over 15,000 individuals.

Online accessibility not only became a reality it influenced collection management. Because of international demand for imagery, the museum geared up for programmatic strategies to create digital collections. A 1996 NEH Preservation and Access grant fueled the development of online delivery systems. The collection staff started using a FileMaker Pro database for collection management. FileMaker database frameworks are easy to design and manipulate. This allowed staff to alter variables and add fields as needed. Subsequent intellectual control and organization of collection data evolved from in-house, non-standardized data sets to a Dublin Core model of organization to the current-day MOAC best practice methodology. MOAC best practice has become the archetype for UCR/CMP metadata management. Our organizational structure is dramatically different than the intuitive model that existed in the transitional time of 1994 to 1998. The 2003 MOAC Keystone-Mast Collection Guide subscribes to high national standards. Furthermore, today's collection management foundation is flexible enough to adjust to unfolding organizational demands.

Physical Structure and virtual Architecture of the Keystone-Mast Collection Guide

Keystone-Mast Collection is the remaining archive of the Keystone View Company of Meadville, Pennsylvania. By 1926, Keystone View Company had gained control of all major stereo publishers in the United States (and a few from outside of the States as well). The company created a massive hierarchical file of contact printed stereographs. All of the 100,000 contact prints are approximately 7.18 x 4.18 inches. This body of stereographic views were produced by a myriad of stereo publishers and homogenized into index subject headings. The cardinal index divisions are Geographic and Social Science. Headings in Geographic are organized alphabetically by countries, provinces, states, dependencies and other territorial divisions. Whereas Social Science files include hundreds of subjects ranging broadly from beverages to transportation. Special Topics, a secondary division, is made of isolated containers with images culled mainly from Geographic topics. Tertiary topics within Special Topics include North American Indians, Prominent People, and stereoview sets by well-known Stereographers. The Stereographers are further divided into a (sub-tertiary) geographic schema.

Legacy classification is an important aspect of the Keystone-Mast Collection. The new order of classification inherent in the digitized collection is determined by hierarchical sorts and pre-programmed constructions. The attempt is to mirror the company's original design in the virtual realm. For this reason, some Keystone-Mast images have more than one citation. For example, "X1234567_Theodore Roosevelt" may exist within the "geographic" category of the US state, "colorado," as well as the "special_topics" sub-category of "prominent_people." Practical guides to Keystone-Mast must allow for multiple query results, relating to the same imagery.

Quantity of Items Uploaded to OAC

The quantity of records, per subgroups, is as follows:

Geographic =                                                                                 25,422

Special Topics =                                                                             7,147

Special Topics with Geographic divisions =                                  6,283

                                                                                                                 

Grand total for the Winter 2003 MOAC upload =                           38,852

Grand total for images (not uploaded*) =                                       32,569

*The 32,569 unique images are served from UCR/CMP's <photo.ucr.edu/kmast> server.


FUTURE UPLOADS TO OAC

MOAC Classic is coming to a close, yet MOAC the concept is far from finalized. The OAC has agreed to keep the door open for more uploads in the future. The Keystone-Mast Collection Guide currently resting in the OAC community is approximately 30 percent complete. The guide includes all of the imagery from the Western Hemisphere and pockets of imagery from worldwide locations. Large groups of image-content that have not been processed include Europe, Asia, and Africa. Therefore, UCR/CMP looks forward to entering further chapters into the OAC's Keystone-Mast Collection Guide. In addition, the museum is developing other digital collections. These may be previewed at <http://www.cmp.ucr.edu/photo/collections.html>:

  • Will Connell Collection

    The Will Connell Archive contains approximately 15,000 negatives and prints along with individual periodicals, personal notes, technical photographic books, manuscripts, and photographic equipment. There are 4,554 searchable entries currently online.

     

  • Ansel Adams Fiat Lux Collection

    1,761 rare images made by Ansel Adams in the 1960s, collected into a searchable online database.

     

  • Harry Pidgeon Collection: California

    The Harry Pidgeon Collection consists of approximately 1,500 glass plate negatives. 279 of these images focus on the state of California and have here been collected in a searchable online database.

     

  • Osvald Siren Collection

    Images of China's Forbidden City from the 1920s. Includes a searchable database of 215 original prints from the Joseph Baird Collection.

MOACII and User Evaluation of MOAC Classic

The Museums and the Online Archive of California IIUser Evaluation (MOAC II) project will examine MOAC Classic as its online test bed. Control groups will critique the contents, packaging and presentation. Results from MOACII will influence UCR/CMP plans relating to access and delivery of online collections. Content in the MOAC Keystone-Mast Collection Guide represents a large percentage of the total OAC test bed. As a non-funded (yet very active) participant of MOACII, UCR/CMP anticipates harvesting valuable results from the evaluation. UCR/CMP will be encouraging MOACII to utilize the UCR/CMP's Keystone-Mast Online Guide as a parallel resource for the project's user control groups.

UCR/CMP's Home Site, Keystone-Mast Online Guide

The UCR/CMP main web site <http://www.cmp.ucr.edu> is in demand by an international audience. The earliest web logs date back to June 1996. At that time, we recorded 20,000 visitors, based on unique IP addresses, from 80 different countries with a total of 230,000 hits for the year. However, just in the month of March 2002 our main server recorded 8.7 million hits, with 2 million pages viewed, and 480,000 visitors from 124 different countries; and, the museum's education server <photo.ucr.edu>, specially set up for secondary school access, recorded 428,047 hits, 9,000 visitors. The total for March 2002 of the two servers indicates over 9 million hits from 500,000 visitors from every wired country in the world. A measure of increased audience awareness is indicated by a quick search via Alta Vista search engine for linkage to our site. In 1997 there were 400 links; today there are 3,524 links from sites around the globe.

The Keystone-Mast Online Guide has been operating behind the scenes on the museum's education server for approximately four years. However, the guide has not gone public. It has been in a test mode-growing from 4,000 items in 1999 to 20,000 in 2000 to over 30,000 today. Without a published URL, knowledge of Keystone-Mast has spread by word-of-mouth. For the last two years, staff has shared the non-public web address with researchers, academic contacts and funding agencies. In fact, we have noticed a dramatic increase in demand for images through the test site. New users have emerged mainly from picture researchers in the field of public television. These unsolicited requests have been from TV stations in New York, Boston, United Kingdom, Ireland and France.

User feedback by researchers will be proactively summoned after the home site Keystone-Mast guide is made openly accessible to the general online community. There is already a brief questionnaire built into the image order form. The expanded evaluation form will be modeled after that which is designed by MOACII. Results from home site usage will be made available to MOACII evaluators.

Summary

Humanity is embracing technologies that remove all obstacles to its intellectual property. MOAC has prepared the stage for unprecedented study of Keystone views. Because of this, the world is regaining ready access to Keystone-Mast stereoviews. This is historic. Keystone-Mast represents a small yet potent portion of stereography's contribution the photographic record. It is the world's largest, most comprehensive body of stereographic imagery. The collection represents early 20th century's best attempt to describe the world photographically. MOAC and similar projects exemplify the potential of information delivery systems. This partnership is serving humankind with undetermined benefits.


MOAC, UCR/CMP, & Online Collections Management Systems

By James Mac Devitt, Digital Media Associate

            UCR/California Museum of Photography (UCR/CMP) joined the Museums and the Online Archive of California (MOAC) consortium with a pre-existing web serving setup intended to provide access to museum exhibitions and collection projects.  With the Stereographs of the Americas (SOA) Program, supported by the Haines Foundation and later by National Endowment for the Humanities, UCR/CMP was already on its way to digitizing, optimizing, and databasing selected sections of its Keystone-Mast Collection for the Web.  On an Apple OS 8.6 WebStar Server, the museum's website, www.cmp.ucr.edu, used a combination of FileMaker databases and Blueworld's Lasso middleware to enable dynamic searches of its collections. This was an acceptable setup for a short period of time, but as UCR/CMP began working with MOAC, it became obvious that the system was failing under the shear load of the digitized collection, 33,000 individual records strong and growing every day (the Keystone-Mast Collection contains over 250,000 prints and 350,000 glass negatives). It has not been established whether this work slow-down was due to FileMaker or the server itself, but in either case, we found a need to move to a larger OS X Apache Server, with dual 1-Ghz processors.  While FileMaker itself is capable of running on a dual-processor system, the Web Companion module that it uses to communicate with middleware such as Lasso or PHP is not.  This limitation alone, along with FileMaker's inability to embed multiple tables within a hierarchy of databases, forced UCR/CMP to seek an alternative databasing system.  With OS X, Apple had built a robust operating system around a BSD UNIX kernel, capable of hosting an enterprise-level SQL database such as MySQL or PostGRESQL.  The latest edition of Lasso now comes bundled with MySQL, which UCR/CMP incorporated into its dynamic collections management system.  As such, while BAM/PFA's DAMD system was certainly robust, being based off of FileMaker Pro (and Microsoft Access for Windows), it was not suited for our multi-purposed system.  We saw no need to duplicate our collections management efforts, the results of which are used both on our own website and exported in EAD format to be used as part of MOAC's contribution to CDL's Online Archive of California (OAC). 

            However, MOAC's inspirational project, spearheaded by the BAM/PFA and OAC, convinced UCR/CMP of the need to condense and centralize its collections management system with other museum programs.  We have moved from the DAMD application model, to a more discursive and multi-functional Intranet/Extranet model.  In this way, UCR/CMP is able to modularly integrate its internal collections management system with its external finding aids, as well as providing functional member services such as the ability to create photo albums and research lists, print sales, e-cards, opt-in mailing lists, and other such useful tools. Moreover, since these tools are already integrated with internal staff tools such as purchase orders, condition reports, and technical information, UCR/CMP now has the ability to automate almost every aspect of its online and physical existence, greatly increasing productivity without impinging on scholastic integrity or overloading the fiscal budget. In other words, we are able to do more with less people, while at the same time shifting the mindless busywork onto automated systems, leaving the staff free to focus on more important and intensive aspects of their job descriptions. Additionally, with the new Intranet/Extranet system, there is no lag-time between creation and reception of information. On a practical level, this means that individuals working in Collections can make changes to the database via our Intranet and those changes will be "live" immediately to anyone viewing that information via our website. This situation can be favorably compared to the MOAC XML system, which seems to have a somewhat more extensive transitionary period, mainly due to the logistical problems surrounding the integration of varied collections from a multitude of institutions. UCR/CMP's choice to use our existing Intranet/Extranet model, however, is not meant to imply any disdain for DAMD. Quite the opposite, it is understood from the beginning that MOAC, as a group, is attempting to confront a different set of issues. Finding a way to share data across institutions, especially ones with a variety of object types, requires different solutions, and XML has become the premiere methodology for dealing with this problem.  As such, UCR/CMP has decided to build DAMD's functional ability to export EAD and other XML DTDs directly into our Intranet system. As with DAMD, the Intranet has a "push-button" solution to the export procedure, meaning any member of the Collections staff can push a button in the Intranet and the Apache server running Lasso will gather the data from the MySQL database, dynamically loop through the data to build links and fill other variables and then display the finished EAD document to the staff member.  Also, since the variables remain the same, UCR/CMP is also able to export data to other XML DTDs as well, such as Dublin-Core, greatly increasing the number of consortiums with which we can share our collections.

            Additionally, participation in MOAC has conditioned UCR/CMP towards standardization of its collection management records. As with MOAC itself, the Collections of UCR/CMP contain a wide range of objects; from photographic prints to glass plate negatives, from small photographic apparatuses to complex displaying devices, from photographers' logbooks and notes to rare photographic albums and catalogs. The greatest benefit of working with the other co-participants in the project has been finding descriptive fields and standardized vocabularies that are broad enough to sufficiently incorporate all of the varied objects in UCR/CMP's Collections.

Appendix A - Code-level example of EAD export using Lasso and MySQL

 

<!ENTITY millen SYSTEM "http://www.cmp.ucr.edu/essays/edward_earle/millenium/" NDATA HTML>

<?filetitle Keystone-Mast Collection>

<ead>

<eadheader audience="internal" langencoding="ISO 639-2" findaidstatus="unverified-full-draft">

<eadid type="SGML catalog">PUBLIC "-//UCR/California Museum of Photography//TEXT (US::CU-RivMP::::Keystone-Mast Collection)//EN" "kmast"

</eadid><filedesc><titlestmt>

<titleproper>Guide to the Keystone-Mast Collection, <date>1870-1963</date></titleproper>

<author>Processed by UCR/California Museum of Photography staff; machine-readable finding aid created by

Jennifer Frias</author>

</titlestmt><publicationstmt>

&hdr-rivmp;

<date>&copy; 2000</date>

<p>The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.</p>

</publicationstmt></filedesc><profiledesc>

<creation>Machine-readable finding aid derived from Filemaker Pro database developed by UCR/California Museum of Photography.

<lb>Date of source: <date>2000.</date></creation>

<langusage>Description is in <language>English.</language></langusage>

</profiledesc>

</eadheader>

<frontmatter><titlepage>

<titleproper>Guide to the Keystone-Mast Collection, <date>1870-1963</date></titleproper>

<publisher>UCR/California Museum of Photography<lb>

<lb><extptr actuate="auto" show="embed" entityref="rivmpgif">

<lb>University of California, Riverside

<lb>Riverside, California</publisher>

&tp-rivmp;

<list type="deflist">

<defitem>

<label>Processed by: </label>

<item>UCR/California Museum of Photography staff</item>

</defitem>

<defitem>

<label>Date Completed: </label>

<item>2000</item>

</defitem>

<defitem>

<label>Encoded by: </label>

<item>Jennifer Frias</item>

</defitem>

</list>

<p>&copy; 2000 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.</p>

</titlepage></frontmatter>

<archdesc level="collection" langmaterial="en">

<did>

<head>Descriptive Summary</head>

<unittitle label="Title">Keystone-Mast Collection, <unitdate type="inclusive">1870-1963</unitdate></unittitle>

<origination label="Creator"><corpname>Keystone View Company</corpname></origination>

<repository label="Repository"><corpname>UCR/California Museum of Photography</corpname><address>

<addressline>Riverside, California 92521</addressline>

</address>

</repository>

</did>

<admininfo>

<head>Administrative Information</head>

<accessrestrict>

<head>Access</head>

<p>Collection is open for research.</p>

</accessrestrict>

<userestrict>

<head>Publication Rights</head>

<p>Copyright has been assigned to UC Regents and is administered by UCR/California Museum of Photography. All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Curator of Collections. Permission for publication is given on behalf of the UC Regents.</p>

</userestrict>

<prefercite>

<head>Preferred Citation</head>

<p>(Print number) - (Title or Inscription), Keystone-Mast Collection, UCR/California Museum of Photography,

University of California, Riverside.</p>

</prefercite>

</admininfo>

<odd>

<head>Abstract</head>

<p>UCR/California Museum of Photography faces the challenge of providing ready, useful and

intellectual access to a valuable body of cultural and educational resources of interest to

the general public and scholars alike. Consisting of 250,000 stereoscopic glass-plate and

film negatives and 100,000 vintage prints, UCR/CMP's Keystone-Mast Collection is the

archive of the Keystone View Company of Meadville, PA (active from 1892-1963). As a

collection, it is the world's largest assemblage of original stereoscopic negatives and prints

providing an encyclopedic view of global cultural history. Formed over the period of the

United States' emergence as a world power, Keystone-Mast not only chronicles an age,

it also represents in pictures a dominant point of view about the world during the nineteenth

and twentieth centuries. It is an important tool for among others, anthropologists, art

historians, cultural studies scholars, historians, political scientists and sociologists.</p>

</odd>

<bioghist>

<head>Biography</head>

<p>The Keystone View Company was founded by amateur photographer, B. L. Singley of Meadville, Pennsylvania, in 1892. Taking advantage of the public's curiosity in viewing disasters, Singley launched the company into the stereo market with sets of thirty stereo cards which recorded the flooding of the nearby French Creek. The growth of stereo photography, depicting national and international subjects, paralleled the emergence of modern America on the world's stage. Other factors which bolstered stereography's popularity was the novelty of experiencing explicit three-dimensional detail in a stereo card and the potential for card owners to frequently revisit views of world events in private or during social gatherings. Stereographs were to 19th Century generations, what television and the Internet are to contemporary culture, and enabled armchair observers to have vicarious experiences in faraway places.</p>

<p>Dates attributed to Keystone-Mast images range from late-nineteenth to mid-twentieth century (with the strengths between 1895 and 1928). The collection is a composite of several stereograph publishing companies. By 1920, the Keystone View Company cornered the market by acquiring the negative collections of all major stereograph publishers such as B. W. Kilburn, H. C. White, Underwood &amp; Underwood, and C. H. Graves. In 1939, Keystone View Company was marketing over 40,000 stereograph titles.</p>

<p>A large number of sales were generated through the efforts of door-to-door salesmen, often groups of college students who would canvas entire towns. The stereograph's combination of educational value and entertainment potential appealed to emerging middle-class families. An excerpt from Keystone sales literature states, "The stereograph gives reality to the World Tour and is exceeded only by the actual experiences of travel." While this assumption is open to criticism, it remains a powerful sales incentive today and is one element in the current popular fascination with the Internet and World Wide Web (Howard Becker, "Stereographs: Local, National, and International Art Worlds," Points of View: The Stereograph in America, A Cultural History, Edward W. Earle, ed., Rochester: Visual Studies Workshop Press, 1979. pp. 89-96. Edward W. Earle, "Millennium: The End of the World As We Know It," SF Camerawork, (21:2) Fall/Winter, 1994, pp. 12-19. Edward W. Earle, "Millennium," (an evolving essay on photography, American history, and networked information at

<extref entityref="millen"> http://www.cmp.ucr.edu/essays/edward_earle/millenium/</extref>))</p>

Another sales engine which powered Keystone View Company's success well into the 20th Century was its marketing of educational systems. Schools, libraries, and other educational institutions were provided with boxed sets of stereo cards at competitive prices. In 1922, Keystone boasted that every school district in a city with a population of over 50,000 had the Keystone System for each of its school. Notable educators, historians, and authors were comissioned as consultants, among the editorial advisors, were the poet Carl Sandburg and Ernest Thompson Seton. Keystone engaged the popular travel lecturer, Burton Holmes, to author much of the company's literature. Inspired marketing and broad ranges of worldwide imagery perpetuated the stereographs as popular objects for enjoyment and education. Keystone's stereo publishing reign continued through 1930s. Finally, production of stereo cards stopped in 1939. The company's production moved from stereographs to producing instructional lanternslides for schools. Sets of these 4x5 inch glass-mounted transparencies were published into the 1950s. The Keystone View Company was sold to the Mast Development Company in 1963. The Keystone division of the Mast company continued to manufacture stereoscopic viewing devices for optometrists, however they had no market for the enormous collection of prints, glass and film negatives. In 1977, Mead Kibbey, a businessman from Sacramento, California, successfully negotiated the donation of the Keystone View Company's archive. After thirty-eight years of nearly idle storage, the collection was donated intact to UCR/CMP by family members of the late Gifford Mast of Davenport, Iowa. In a tribute to the Mast Family, the collection is subsequently known as the Keystone-Mast Collection.</p>

<p>In 1990, the collection was moved from the UC Riverside campus into a state-of-the-art collections room of a renovated 3-story structure, redesigned specifically for UCR/California Museum of Phototgraphy.</p>

</bioghist>

<dsc type="combined">

<head>Keystone-Mast Collection</head>

<c01 level="series">

<did><unittitle>Stereographic Photoprints by Geographical Location</unittitle></did>

[Var: 'SQL_Query1' = 'SELECT continent FROM kmast GROUP BY continent;']

[Inline:  -Database='collections',

                                    -Keyfield='id',

                                    -SQL=$SQL_Query1]

[Records]

[Var: 'continent' = (Field: 'continent')]

[Var: 'SQL_Query2' = 'SELECT country FROM kmast WHERE continent="' + $continent + '" GROUP BY country;']

<c02 level="subseries">

<did><unittitle>[Output: $continent]</unittitle></did>

[Inline:  -Database='collections',

                                    -Keyfield='id',

                                    -SQL=$SQL_Query2]

[Records]

[Var: 'country' = (Field: 'country')]

[Var: 'SQL_Query3' = 'SELECT state FROM kmast WHERE country="' + $country + '" GROUP BY state;']

<c03 level="subseries">

<did><unittitle>[Output: $country]</unittitle></did>

[Inline:  -Database='collections',

                                    -Keyfield='id',

                                    -SQL=$SQL_Query3]

                       

[Records]

<c04 level="subseries">

<did><unititle>[If: field:'state'!=''][field: "state"][else]General[/If]</unititle></did>

[Inline:  -Findall,

                                    -Database='collections',

                                    -Table='cms',

                                    -KeyField='id',

                                    -Operator='cn', 'state'=(Field: 'state'),

                                    -MaxRecords='10']

[records]<c05 id="[If: field:'state'!=''][field: "state"][else]General[/If]_stereo.[field: 'accession_number']" level="item">

<did>

<daogrp>

<daoloc entityref="[If: field:'state'!=''][field: "state"][else]General[/If]_stereo.[field: 'accession_number']" href="http://138.23.124.164/images/kmast/[string_lowercase:(String_Replace: Find=' ', Replace='',(field: "continent"))]/[If: field:'country'!=''][string_lowercase:(String_Replace: Find=' ', Replace='',(field: "country"))]/[else][/If][If: field:'state'!=''][string_lowercase:(String_Replace: Find=' ', Replace='',(field: "state"))]/[else][/If]stereo/[string_lowercase:(String_Replace: Find=' ', Replace='',(field: "accession_number"))].jpg" role="hi-res"></daoloc>

<daoloc entityref="[If: field:'state'!=''][field: "state"][else]General[/If]_thumb.[field: 'accession_number']" href="http://138.23.124.164/images/kmast/[string_lowercase:(String_Replace: Find=' ', Replace='',(field: "continent"))]/[If: field:'country'!=''][string_lowercase:(String_Replace: Find=' ', Replace='',(field: "country"))]/[else][/If][If: field:'state'!=''][string_lowercase:(String_Replace: Find=' ', Replace='',(field: "state"))]/[else][/If]thumbs/[string_lowercase:(String_Replace: Find=' ', Replace='',(field: "accession_number"))].jpg" role="thumbnail"></daoloc>

<daodesc><p>Detail of Stereographic Print</p></daodesc>

</daogrp>

<origination><persname>[field: 'photographer']</persname></origination>

<unittitle>[field: 'title']</unittitle>

<unitdate>[field: 'date_of_creation'].</unitdate>

<physdesc>

<genreform>Stereograph. Silver Gelatin Photoprint.</genreform><dimensions>h4.18 x w7.18 inches</dimensions>

</physdesc>

<repository>UCR/California Museum of Photography</repository>

<unitid>[field: 'accession_number']</unitid>

</did>

<admininfo><custodhist><p>Keystone-Mast Collection, UCR/California Museum of Photography, University of California, Riverside</p></custodhist></admininfo>

<odd>

<head>Inscription</head>

<p>[field: 'inscription']</p>

</odd><controlaccess>

<head>Subject</head>

<p>[field: 'LCSH_summary']</p>

</controlaccess>

</c05>[/records]

[/Inline]

</c04>

[/Records]

[/Inline]

</c03>

[/Records]

[/Inline]

</c02>

[/Records]

[/Inline]

</c01>

</dsc></archdesc></ead>

 

Appendix B - Screen Capture of Lasso MySQL database (online interface)